I have read in many places that SEO is a difficult business but my personal experience is that the first steps positioning a web page in Google are rather straight forward.
Following the advise of Google's SEO Stater Guide and the Beginner guide to SEO of SEOmoz you have to follow few steps to start positioning your web page.
First you have to include in your web page the following HTML elements (they are list in order of importance):
Obviously you have to have content that people would like to find, as much content as you can. You need external links to point to your site to get some relevance for Google. for that you can include your site in public web directories and contact sites similar to yours to interchange links. Look for them in google, they are not hard to find. And finally, it is very convenient to register your site in google webmaster tools web service to warn google of your existence and to monitor how your positioning in Google is going.
With these simple steps I have achieved 30k visits per month in 6 months and my web is visit mostly in Spain, imagine what can you get in bigger countries.